This is Part Two of formatting your MSS (manuscript) using MS ‘Word’ so that you can upload your book to just about anywhere of your choosing – Amazon Kindle, Apple i-store, Barnes & Noble, Kobo etc
In Part One we looked at how to format & layout your manuscript so that it can be read across many different e-reader devices. Below, in Part Two, we will look at using more advanced functions in MS ‘Word’ to produce a fully professional navigational e-book (i.e., your reader’s can find their way around your wonderful book that you want to share with the world), so that it will be accepted on all the major platforms for worldwide distribution.
Alternatively, you can download the actual e-book version that show you how to format an e-book either in the Free Kindle Version
PDF version here: how-this-book-was-made-and-how-you-can-make-your-own-preview-version-pdf
Now on with Part Two of formatting your e-book here on this blog (note that the formatting below is set up to be read on an e-book, so it doesn’t always translate literally – but the essentials are there nevertheless).
Now, open up your manuscript in MS ‘Word’, or just use an existing MS ‘Word’ doc to follow along.
STEP FIVE: Modifying Headings
HEADERS (Sub-Headings etc)
Now, on to those Headers with special features as I mentioned in Part One. These have a very specific function, apart from being used to make large chapter headings and sub-heading etc. These pre-set options which you should see adjacent to ‘Normal’, ‘No Spacing’ pre-sets in the version of Word Doc, can be explored by selecting the downward arrow where you should see ‘AaBbCcDdEd with Heading 1, 2, 3, 4’ etc in pre-set boxes. When working in your main body of text, remember that the ‘AaBbCcDdEd Normal’ present should have a colour frame around it – indicating that this is the pre-set you are currently using.
If you did the special paste option using ‘Formatted Text’ (RTF), then just check that your headings and sub-headings are not taking an automatic pre-set using any of the ‘Heading’ types. Even your different formats should still display the ‘Normal’ pre-set highlighted box when you highlight heading titles etc. If not, just make sure these are set to normal and format them the way you want manually for each distinct heading. This is the method used below, so follow along.
Do not select any ‘Heading’ pre-sets just yet, simply bear in mind that they are an essential feature in some cases for publishing your e-book with certain platforms as you will see further on. Therefore, it is worth getting this part of e-book creation correct. It is also a very useful tool to know about as well as you will see below.
For instance, most of us would usually want a large chapter/section heading. You can set these up manually to look the way you want and, do it for each section/chapter title and/or main headings throughout your book. For instance, you would select the chapter/section title and highlight it and format accordingly. In the case of the e-book version, I used a red colour (hopefully it didn’t turn blue in the book you are reading due to it being hyperlinked – which I’ll discuss further on). I chose Font Size 36 pt for the main heading (Section One), but then made the title beneath it 26 pt and used centre alignment.
HOW THIS BOOK WAS MADE INSIDE
I could do this individually for each main heading/section and main titles throughout this book to look the way I wanted. Obviously, this colouring is just to demonstrate that you can format your headings the way you want them to look. I also selected the sub-heading of the section and main title, ‘W’ = Word -Doc Way’ and manually made it a uniquely formatted piece of text by selecting pt 16 and making the ‘W’ red.
Alternatively, in order to setup the main chapter/section headings throughout this book the easier way (you would do this for your main chapter and book sections), by using the cursor at the start of the first word and clicking on the left button of mouse – I dragged this to the end of whole title and released, and by keeping the title highlighted (making sure not to click on the white areas). I then selected ‘Heading 1’ pre-set thus, changing the selected text from the normal pre-set to the new ‘Heading 1’ pre-set. For example, by highlighting the whole of ‘Section One: How This Book Was Made Inside’ (as otherwise, the title would be too long), I selected ‘Heading 1’ from the preset boxes by going to the ‘Home’ menu and from the styles boxes I clicked on: ‘AaBbCcDdEd – Heading 1’ adjacent to the ‘AaBbCcDdEd -No Spacing’ pre-set. Once this was selected or if I hovered the cursor over the pre-set ‘Heading 1’, then the highlighted text appeared as giant letters. My heading: ‘Section One How This Book Was Made Inside’ would now look something like below:
HOW THIS BOOK WAS MADE INSIDE
This is the default size of the pre-set ‘Heading 1’. But this can be changed to look the way we want. Once you have one chapter heading formatted the way you want it to appear, you can use any of the shortcut formatting methods described above to set ‘Heading1’ up and apply to all your chapter headings etc by going to your chapter/section titles and after highlighting the text you want, you select ‘Heading 1’, you can always change this pre-set as you go along by using the ‘Modify’ method described earlier. Use your right mouse button to click on ‘Heading 1’. Select ‘Modify’ and any formatting changes done in this menu will update all your titles formatted using the ‘Heading 1’ pre-set.
Tip: If you want your chapter/section heading to be larger and different from the title, simply format manually first (making sure these are set to the ‘Normal’ pre-set) until these look the way you want and then select each title and select the special ‘Heading’ pre-set (the manual formatting should hold).
As noted earlier, the pre-set ‘Headings’ have another special function – an inbuilt automatic feature that relates to clickable links (hyperlinks within your document) that greatly aid the navigation of your book-in-the-making in that they provide a means for your readers to navigate the different sections/chapters and sub-section parts of your book when it is published. Moreover, these navigational pre-set ‘Headings’ are an essential feature for uploading your e-book to most platforms if you wish to publish via them and make use of their vast distribution.
Therefore, we will explore a very important and useful way of viewing this special navigation feature. You can even use it to navigate yourself as a quick way of getting round your book under construction and it will help you avoid mistakes whilst building in the different headings throughout your book as this navigation also is the source for building the Table of Contents (the easy way), which we will also explore further on.
The viewable navigation, built directly from your heading pre-sets is called the ‘Document Map’ and it lets you see, in real time, how your navigation panel will look on your finished e-book. You can display this viewing panel by going to ‘View’ in the main menu. Click on this and then tick the empty box beside ‘Document Map’.
All your headings that are set up in the pre-set style ‘Headings’ (Heading 1 for example as originally applied to this current book) should now be displayed on the left-hand side of your document. If there are any extra headings or bits of text you don’t want to appear on this panel, simply click on the offending section in the panel and this will navigate you to the corresponding piece of text within your document. Highlight all the unwanted material (notice that it has somehow taken one of the Header styles) and select the ‘Normal’ style box. These should now disappear from your side panel, leaving only the heading pre-sets used.
TIP: Don’t use the ‘Heading’ pre-sets for anything other than what you would want to see in a normal table of contents page on a physical book.
If you are taking your formatted MSS to LULU, just be aware that they have a strange system where you have to use ‘Heading 1’ pre-set for your title page and major sections and ‘Heading 2’ for your other sections such as CHAPTER TITLES and the sub-headings would take ‘Heading 3’ and so on and so forth. They are also fussy about spaces (gaps) in your document map view navigation, which we will address below. Therefore, as I was planning on distributing with LULU to try them out for teaching purposes, (I usually just upload to Smashwords Premium Catalogue and KDP Amazon Kindle for a really wide reach), I changed the heading order for this present book to suit LULU and their specifications for the broader distribution that they can give your book if you comply with their formatting.
Therefore, I had to return my original headings (pre-set ‘Heading 1) to a new heading type with special features and functions – ‘Heading 2’ pre-set. I first selection the headings and titles and returned these to ‘Normal’. I placed sections and their titles that I wanted to appear in the document viewing panel on a single line and made everything the same font size with a colon after ‘SECTION ONE’ e.g. SECTION ONE: HOW THIS BOOK WAS MADE INSIDE and then highlighted the whole line and selected ‘Heading 2’and formatted accordingly. Your whole section/chapter heading and title should be formatted strictly using the automatic pre-set ‘Heading’ function and not manually. Any formatting done has to be carried out via the ‘Modify’ mode (right-clicking on the ‘Heading’ pre-set itself). The pre-set ‘Heading 1’ was now set up for the main title of this book as per LULU’s specifications.
For ‘Heading 3’, I left these as my sub-headings within each section/chapter as these were already set up this way. For example, I wanted sub-headings for the main headings of all the ‘steps’. These were created by highlighting the text I wanted to change (e.g. STEP ONE, STEP TWO….and so on up to STEP TEN), and formatting these accordingly and selecting ‘Heading 3’ for each. If I wanted to make sure these passed the Lulu specifications, then I would format only using the ‘Modify’ mode within ‘Heading 3’ and not do any formatting manually on the sub-headings themselves.
Any other sub-headings that I wanted to look a little different throughout the document, I simply formatted these manually as and when I wanted them, but I did not use the pre-set ‘Headings’ automatic feature for these. Otherwise, they would all turn up in the side panel ‘Document Map’ view and would begin looking very crowded indeed. Furthermore, LULU will only accept a sequence of ‘Heading 1, Heading 2 and Heading 3’ – no more and no less. And as noted above, you have to use ‘Heading 1’ for the title even if you, like me, don’t like my title showing in my table of contents. I should note that the reason why they insist on this is because they build your table of contents for you to their own methods that they know will be accepted by several different distributors such as Amazon, Apple i-store, Nook: Barnes & Noble and several others.
So once you are happy with all your headings, click on each heading in the document map panel and these should navigate directly to the corresponding chapter titles throughout your MSS. If your Headings (with navigation) are done properly, we would expect to see the different heading types displayed as a hierarchy where the different heading titles are listed under the pre-sets: ‘Heading 1’ (the title of the book heading), followed by ‘Heading 2’ for the main chapter/section titles (slightly indented) and beneath that and slightly indented again, the sub-headings (the steps and other sub-headings within the main chapter/sections of this book) should now also be displayed (with minus and plus symbols, for expanding and shrinking subheadings back to main headings visible only).
Note that the side panel view does not pick up the formatting (for example the colour red/pink that I used for my main sections) or the font sizes etc. Instead, the panel displays simple text. But if you misspelt or omitted a space etc, the document map view would also pick this up. Now, if something requires correcting, or if a piece of text is there that should not be, then use the navigation panel to go to the issue within your document. Correct anything that needs correcting and it should now be resolved in real-time on the side panel.
If something is missing from the panel view that should be there (one of your chapter titles), then you will probably find that it has taken the ‘Normal’ pre-set instead of a special ‘Heading’ pre-set. Just highlight this heading in your document and click the ‘Heading’ pre-set displayed in the main menu view. This should now change to the type of heading you want and the corresponding pre-set ‘Heading’ (not the ‘Normal’ pre-set) box should hopefully be highlighted showing the corresponding automatic heading type. By doing this, your heading should now appear in the ‘Document Map’ viewing panel.
Similarly, and as noted earlier, if there is text in your document map view that shouldn’t be there, go to the place within your document where this is showing up (using the navigation panel) and highlight it returning it to the ‘Normal’ pre-set. It probably inadvertently became a special ‘Heading’ pre-set.
TIP: Sometimes there are spaces and gaps on the panel navigation view between header titles on the viewing panel. If this happens, go to the nearest header within your document where you don’t want the gap and delete all blank spaces between the last piece of text and the header of the previous section. (it is best to put in section page breaks after you are happy with the Document Map panel view). You may have to reset your heading which has now returned to ‘Normal’ and it should reappear – hopefully, in the right place on the panel view with no spaces.
This can be quite tricky and might need a few tries to resolve. Don’t lose sleep over it, but it does tidy up your navigation for your readers when you come to publish your e-book, and if you want to distribute via LULU’s catalogue, you have to get this right.
If you do the panel document view correctly, then congratulate yourself for you have just created the NCX properly and you are good to go just about anywhere of your choosing. NCX stands for: ‘Navigation Control file for XML applications’ and as the name implies, it is a very useful navigation tool (which can be turned on or off in the side view of the reading screen); allows readers to bookmark sections where they left off for example and navigate the book irrespective of what section or part they are currently reading. Your readers will also appreciate this feature.
STEP SIX: Controlling & Viewing how your sections and Headings appear on any e-reading Device/App
E-books don’t always reflect where you put your chapter headings at the beginning of a blank page in your document. They can often run your last paragraph or even a single word into the next screen page. If you want to be sure that your chapter headings, or anything else that is important to stay where you left it in your document, you need to insert ‘SECTION BREAKS’. This is one sure way to control how the main sections/chapters of your book appear on an e-reader. This is the tried and tested method employed throughout for each of the main sections (chapter heading types), steps and other parts of this book that I wanted to appear at the top of a new screen/page no matter what device/app it was being read on. For instance, for most books, you wouldn’t want to see chapter headings anywhere except at the beginning of a new screen display no matter what reading device you readers were reading on.
The method used to achieve and control exactly where and how everything appeared on an e-reading screen no matter how big or small the device/app, can be done by inserting section breaks from the ‘Home’ menu under ‘Page Layout’ and by selecting the drop-down menu beside ‘Breaks’ scroll past page breaks to ‘Section Breaks’. Choose ‘Next Page’. Remember to delete any unnecessary spaces on the next page.
TIP: Note that although your document may look like it is full of white spaces while working on your document, the text tends to flow together leaving a small gap between paragraphs and generally tightens everything up on many e-reader devices/apps. This is also the reason why you need to be clear about where you want certain text and sections to stand on their own and not be split between screen pages.
Just break up the parts of your document you want to separate such as the obvious chapters (you wouldn’t have the end of one chapter text running into a new chapter heading on the one page). If you have a book of poems or quotes which you don’t want to be chopped up onto different screens, and/or don’t want disconnected headings, simply do a new section break immediately after the previous body of material/text and again after the stand-alone poem/quote and/or whole section that you wish to stay together on one page/screen no matter what reader it is being read on.
I have taken a section break just here for example, and at the end of this paragraph, where I want this segment of text to stay together (or an image that I would like the information to relate to). For instance, in my other books, I might want an image to have a figure number and reference to be linked and not broken up across two different page/screens. I also do not necessarily want to make this stand on its own on a distinct page/screen from the rest of the text.
Therefore, I would do as above, but this time instead of selecting ‘Section Break’ ‘Next Page’ I could choose ‘Section Break’ ‘Continuous’. You can see within your text what type of section breaks you have used (next page or continuous) and where you have placed these by using the special ‘Show/Hide’ tool.
In order to fully control where your section breaks are in the document (they are invisible) you will have to make sure you are in the ‘Home’ menu where you should see a strange symbol that looks like a fancy capital ‘I’ This tool is known as: ‘Show/Hide’
(It has an inward scroll on the left-hand upper tip hanging). By clicking on this symbol, your text will now have lots of symbols throughout, showing where spaces are in the document etc and it will also show where you have placed the section breaks. These should look something like the example here… Section Break (Next Page)……………………………
Or: ………………………………..Section Break (Continuous)………………………………
TIP: This helps you see potential problems that might show up in the e-book preview, which you can resolve as you are doing the layout formatting at this early stage.
STEP SEVEN: Creating a Table of Contents Automatically or Manually Creating a TOC list
You don’t need page numbers in an e-book. Page numbers would make absolutely no sense where flowable text digital books are concerned. The navigation panel on the side view ‘document map’ is your means of finding your way around an e-book along with the traditional type table of contents. E-book pages are quite different to traditional physical books in as much as they typically contain over a thousand screen pages depending upon the device/app that it is read on and the corresponding size of screen/page and reading preferences.
However, just as a physical book has a table of contents at the beginning of the book to let you know what page a chapter title starts and finishes on, and it is a place where you can see at a glance the types of chapter headings and this tells you a good deal about the content of the book, similarly, digital books usually have a TOC (table of contents). Only instead of these referring to page numbers, in digital books the TOC usually has clickable hyperlinks inside the document to allow readers to navigate directly to parts/sections/chapter headings as they cannot physically turn the page or browse the virtual book. This navigation can be generated automatically in a Word Doc so that your headings in the Table of Contents can be clicked and these will hyperlink straight to the corresponding section of your e-book with the same heading.
Amazon Kindle (KDP) are not quite as strict about the type of Table of Contents used (although, obviously, they would like you to have one and so would your readers), but, the major distributor of e-books (beyond Amazon Kindle), Smashwords – if you are using their premium catalogue distribution to e-book retailers such as: Apple i-store, Barnes & Noble’s ‘Nook’ and many more, just be aware that Smashwords insist on a very particular Table of Contents (TOC): it has to be a manually built one and they also insist on having a very specific NCX navigation (as explored above using the ‘Document Map’ viewing panel) as well.
For instance, why I believe this major global dedicated e-book distributor Smashwords insist on creating a manual Table of Contents is seemingly because the Word Doc method is notorious for picking up background coding and anomalies in their automatic features and as Smashwords need to put your document (usually Word Doc earlier version is best) through what they, unfortunately call the: ‘MEAT GRINDER’ to make it work on a broad range of e-book reading devices and apps, they need your document to be free of such gremlins. Yes, anyone with HTML familiarity who can make e-pubs themselves would cringe at this – but as I am assuming, like myself, you do not do much web formatting from the ground up – and otherwise you wouldn’t be reading this guide, you don’t need to know what this means.
I personally tend to use both the premium catalogue distribution that Smashwords offer and Amazon’s KDP distribution worldwide to all their online bookstores for my other e-books (that are nothing whatsoever to do with self-publishing – they were the cause of it) as it gives me the farthest reach for my books. It is only for teaching purposes that I used LULU and a dedicated e-book platform Draft2Digial. Between these two platforms, you will more or less cover all the Smashwords premium and KDP (Amazon Kindle) offer.
These latter two platforms require a ‘perfect’ NCX (document map navigation) to generate a TOC for you in a very particular way (you must have three sequential headings 1-3 and do not use ‘Heading 4’ for example), if you are literally submitting a draft (the less formatted the better as they will make a mess of your efforts) for D2D (draft2Digital) and for LULU, by following the relevant steps throughout this book, they will reproduce a lovely and true version of your e-book, even if they add the Table of Contents themselves.
There is a way to keep the formatting intact and uploading to D2D using your own formatting, NCX. And automatically generated Table of Contents, but you have to produce an E-Pub and although I managed to do all this, I could not get the E-Pub distributed to the Apple i-store and I checked the E-Pub issues and found that it was something to do with the file identity which, I think meant that I had to code in the ISBN and as I did not have my own (although I do for my physical books – I’ll explain more about these further on in the last section) as I was doing all of this for free and used the available ISBN numbers from these platforms. Otherwise, the book was distributed successfully everywhere else. However, do bear in mind that D2D do not distribute to Amazon Kindle and LULU can distribute (but not if you are already with them) and they also do Apple and all the rest, as does Smashwords and they do all the rest as well.
Therefore, if thinking of any of these platforms, just bear in mind that each has variations on the table of contents which are outlined here. If you are thinking of sending your draft MSS for D2D to rearrange it into something entirely unrecognisable – but looking good at their end, then: DO NOT DO ANYTHING MORE HERE. YOU SHOULDN’T EVEN SPEND TIME FORMATTING. DO NOT GENERATE A TOC (manual or automatic) and go straight to the next section of this book about cover creation as you will get some ideas there for when you are ready to upload your e-book and share it with the world, with these different options in mind.
If you are thinking of only using LULU, then DO NOT GENERATE ANY TYPE OF TABLE of CONTENTS, but everything else you have done thus far has been really worth it and now you are good to go to the section on embedding images and cover design also. In fact, you could try LULU’s cover creation tools and just read the last section of this book and you will be ready to publish your book and distribute to the world at large.
CREATING A MANUAL TOC LIST (Table of Contents)
Only do this step if you want to upload your book to Smashwords’ Premium Catalogue. You could create a manual Table of Contents list of all your headings the longhand way by copying from a written list in a virtual or physical notebook and typing a table of contents into the beginning of your document. This, of course, would really be doing it manually and when I have tried this method myself, I find that I make little mistakes and the chapter/section/sub-heading etc don’t exactly match the titles throughout my document.
Instead, once you are happy with all your chapter/section/sub-headings that you created or, will create at some point using the method for generating automatic pre-set ‘Headings’ above: and making sure that these are displayed in the left-hand window next to your open document in ‘Document Map’ view as demonstrated earlier, you can simply type what you see in this panel (your chapter and section headings) on the page that will contain your table of contents. Your TOC should appear in a similar part of your e-book to be, as you would expect to see it in a physical book – usually: after the title page, copyright info etc (front matter).
If you use the automatic table of contents in any way prior to uploading to Smashwords premium catalogue, even by unformatting it and returning it to ‘Normal’, or, using the special paste option (all of which I have tried), this will still leave you with embedded automatic links that will simply cause you too much grief to rectify, So don’t be tempted to take any shortcuts on this. This is also important to bear in mind if you want to upload to LULU in Word doc format or D2D in that format also where you absolutely don’t generate any of the table of content automatic features.
Now, once you have typed out your headings where you want your table of contents list to be, you just format it the way you would any text. You could highlight the entire list and centre it and change the font size as well as change the line spacing etc. Now, once you are happy with the TOC list go straight to STEP EIGHT if uploading to Smashwords Premium Catalogue, otherwise, read on if you are only, or also interested in distributing your book with Amazon Kindle (KDP) directly or want to create your own E-Pubs or files that might be suitable on other platforms that I have not listed.
GENERATING AN AUTOMATIC TOC LIST (Table of Contents)
Only follow this section if intending uploading your e-book directly to KDP (Kindle) or aiming to produce a suitable E-Pub directly to upload to D2D or another platform of your choice or want to create a fixed format digital PDF book. With KDP, it is not as vital to get this perfect. But, you are thinking of your readers here. With your cursor on the correct page where you want the TOC to go, select ‘References’ on the main ‘Home’ menu view and then select the option ‘Table of Contents’. There is a downward arrow next to this to let you see the options. You can choose an automatic option or scroll down to ‘Insert Table of Contents’. This will open up a menu where you can change how and what is displayed in your table of contents at the beginning of your book.
For instance, you will not want to display page numbers as this is an e-book, so un-tick/un-check page numbers to be displayed and tick/check the boxes to display hyperlinks. You should go for the simplest style in the format options. Play around with the different options. There is also an option to show different levels of headings.
You might only choose two levels as you don’t have to display all heading types if you don’t want every level of headings in your TOC (this is up to you). Just say that you want level 1 (Heading 1 which can be your main chapter headings and main sections or the title heading when using LULU’s system) and /or Heading 1 and Heading 2 to be displayed, but don’t want all your sub-sub-headings to be displayed in the Table of Contents (Heading 3 – steps and layers etc within this present book), you would click on the menu options in the Automatic Table of Contents setup using ‘Show Levels’ and select ‘2’ meaning that it will display only Heading 1 and Heading 2. Click on ‘Format’ option and choose ‘Simple’. This is the style of your Table of Contents. You can format it after you generate the basic table with your headings.
The automatic feature takes the titles directly from your headings formatted with the special ‘Headings’ pre-set within your document. If you have misspelt anything in your text or forgotten to make one of your headings take a special present as this TOC is directly generated from your document headings: it will be missing from your TOC list. So always double/triple check this. I did this very thing before uploading this book, but fortunately, I caught it on time.
Generally, once you have all the formatting done for your table of contents, you can build a new one if you are not happy with it. However, that will un-do all the formatting and you will have to start all over again. So try to leave the finishing touches of your final formatting to the very, very end and in the meantime play around with all the different things you can do while building one that you maybe don’t need to use.
TIP: With your navigation panel open (Document Map view); check that your headings are being displayed on the panel. That way, you will know that this heading will be displayed within your automatically generated TOC list. Check this panel before final layout and formatting. The panel also lets you see if any extra text has crept in unintentionally (remember to re-set the unwanted text using the ‘Normal’ pre-set) as this will also be generated into your TOC list.
Returning to setting up the automatic table features. For instance, you wouldn’t put in leader lines as you might find in a physical book TITLE of Chapter…………………………………………………………………………..pg. No.
Once you are happy with everything, you can generate this table automatically by clicking ‘OK’ (an automatically generated TOC should now be visible where you placed your cursor after the front matter of your book when you have set your table up the way you want) by highlighting the newly generated table in full, you should be able to do further formatting and get it to look exactly the way you want. You can format it much like you would normal text. You can centre all the text with one title under the other rather than right aligned TOC list, which looks good in e-books (as used in this one). So you can just select centre when your list is highlighted and everything should shift to that position.
TIP: When entering the whole table of contents, making sure to highlight it all, check that your ruler is not indented (first paragraph for example) as this will skew this alignment. Just select the downward arrow on the ruler slider bar above your document and at the bottom of the main menu screen view and slide (drag) back to normal left margin setting for block text. Click on the ruler margins several times if necessary. You want your entire TOC to have the same alignment – in this case centered. By selecting the TOC list again, if it is no longer highlighted, you can continue doing more formatting such as make the Font Size smaller (which will shrink your TOC list which may be quite long); I did this also for the TOC list at the beginning of this book. It is also useful to make the line spacing single (no spaces between option from the main menu view) and this will help shrink the list further.
To change the entire table, go to ‘References’ on the main menu view and selecting ‘Table of Contents’ from the downward arrow and selecting: ‘Insert Table of Contents’. This will override your previous settings and you will have to do all this formatting again, or, you can go to ‘Update Table’ using the same menu and you will be given an option to ‘Update Page Numbers Only’ which only applies to physical books if you want everything to remain the same except readjust page numbers that may have slipped or shifted. You can select ‘Update Entire Table’ and it will update any corrections and the main table of contents style setting, but, as I said above, you will have to reformat it manually again.
Amazon KDP will accept this and it should now be clickable – try it to see if it works.
STEP EIGHT: Creating Book Marks within the document & Hyper-linking these to the Table of Contents
BOOKMARKING HEADINGS THROUGHOUT THE DOCUMENT
If you copied down your Table of Contents, either using the traditional writing method into a non-virtual notepad or into a non-formatted ‘notebook’ or ‘notepad’ of the virtual type text file (perhaps by copying the automatically generated TOC if you were also thinking of uploading to Kindle KDP), you are now ready to take the following steps if you want to publish your e-book on the Smashwords’ global reach platform and it will also give you the know-how so that you really understand where all of Word’s automatic features come from and it means you can control things better and fix issues yourself, if you do encounter unexpected hiccups along the way.
TIP: If you are thinking of uploading the same book to different places, it is perhaps best to save your formatted manuscript (minus any Table of Contents – automatically generated or manually generated) as a generic type file with the title of your book and the intended place for uploading it. For instance, your book title followed by KDP upload or, title followed by Smashwords and/or title followed by Lulu upload. This is because once you do this next part (bookmarking and hyperlink within your document to create a manual TOC) you will not be able to use this file to upload to Lulu and although, you could use it to upload to KDP – Kindle, which I have done after generating a manual TOC instead of doing the hyperlinks system described below, I feel it is best to have a separate file for Amazon and generate your Table of Contents automatically as described above and leave the following method to specific files for uploading to Smashwords only. Remember, you only need to do the following for inclusion in the Smashwords’ premium catalogue for their wide distribution channels.
The following method is based on Smashwords’ style guide which is rather complex to follow, so I have made it as simple as possible below. You are essentially building the clickable Table of Contents yourself (manually) rather, than doing it using ‘Word’s’ automatic TOC generator. But in the end, you will achieve the same results as the automatic table, and you will see behind the scenes of how this works. You are going to bookmark all the headings (Headings, 1-3 if desired, but you could do just two main headings throughout your document) and then link (using internal hyperlinks) these bookmarks to their corresponding titles on your Table of Contents so that your readers can navigate/click on a heading in the TOC and hyperlink to the corresponding heading/title within the document.
TIP: The following is not essential, but I do feel it might help if you follow the specific order of formatting described below to avoid blips/bugs and generally confusing your Word Document which, may appear to be behaving itself as sometimes your document map view (to be NXC navigation in your e-book) fools you into thinking everything is just fine, when it is not. You might be horrified to find that your navigation is virtually non-existent when reviewing your digital e-Pub on Smashwords. This is rectiviable if you set all your headings to ‘Normal’ again – (you can still format them to look the way you want) and as you input each bookmark as you will see how to do below, then set up your special ‘Heading 1’, Heading 2, or sub-headings ‘Heading 3’ etc as you go along. Only do the internal hyperlinks to your bookmarks at the very end.
Now starting with bookmarks, once you have these done for all your headings and sub-heading throughout your book, you can use these to hyperlink your headings/subheadings/sections throughout your document to your TOC. Use the navigation ‘Document Map’ to click and navigate to the first heading in your document and all of your headings that need bookmarking thereafter. But, as handy as this method is, be warned that Word may be fooling you. Perhaps you should just re-set all your special ‘Headings’ back to normal as suggested above.
You select and highlight the first heading of your book (in my case it is ‘SECTION ONE: How This Book Was Made Inside’ (formatted but with a ‘Normal’ pre-set and is therefore not in the side document panel). You drag the cursor with the left mouse button held down until you reach the end of the title header. You are indicating exactly what and where you want to place the first bookmark. Release the left mouse button and being careful not to click on any white space (as this will un-highlight your selection), making sure you are in the ‘Home’ menu view and choose ‘Insert’. Choose the ‘Bookmarks’ option after clicking on ‘Insert’. You should now see a dialogue screen open. First of all, tick the option ‘Hidden Bookmarks’ – this will reveal any unwanted bookmarks that you might have inadvertently embedded. MS Word documents are notorious for picking up this type of unwanted formatting. If they are there, they might show up as strange things beginning with ‘H’-followed by numbers and dashes. If you see toc and some numbers etc, then you have unintentionally embedded some automatic table of contents links. You will have to take each one out manually by highlighting it and deleting it. If you don’t see these strange numbers, your document is clean and you have done your formatting properly. Congratulate yourself if you achieved this, I know I found it really tricky.
Now in the ‘Insert’ ‘Bookmarks’ dialogue screen, you have the option to place bookmarks according to ‘location’ or ‘name’. I opted for ‘name’ as I might change the location, but it doesn’t seem to matter too much once you highlight the header you want to bookmark – name and place are one and the same. It is extremely important, however, to understand that bookmarks cannot have numbers, capitals, spaces etc. You just want to use a bookmark identifier that is simple and easy to remember.
For example, I used the following method to do the bookmarks for this book. For the first heading in the main body of this document (SECTION ONE: HOW THIS BOOK WAS MADE INSIDE), I highlighted this part of the heading title only and with my cursor and with the dialogue window open under ‘Insert’ (in the ‘Home’ view) and choosing ‘Bookmark’, next to ‘add’, I typed the words: ‘sectionone’ to indicate that it was the first header of the book. Click ‘OK’. You always click the ‘Add’ button after you input the newest bookmark title. It is at this point that I also select the heading type (‘Heading 1’ or Heading 2’ etc and these should appear within the document map panel as you give each a unique bookmark followed by a special heading function). Keep doing this until all your header/sections (CHAPTER ONE – chapterone, CHAPTER TWO – chaptertwo etc) throughout your document have been bookmarked with unique identifiers and assigned a particular ‘Heading’ pre-set. My next bookmarks were all the steps as sub-headings within SECTION ONE for instance. Each was given a unique bookmark name and then assigned a special ‘Heading 3’ (each one appeared in the document map viewing panel as I went along).
I gave each step a simple bookmark name with no spaces, capitals or numbers/symbols. For example, steps one to ten, I bookmarked as ‘stepone’, ‘steptwo’, stepthree’, ‘stepfour’ and so on and so forth. I did the same thing for ‘Section Two’ and its sub-headings and finally ‘Section Three’ (bookmarked: ‘sectionthree’) and its sub-headings until I had completed bookmarking everything right up to the end material about me the author and other publications etc.
TIP: If your e-book has more bookmarked headings going up to the teens and twenties, for example, don’t take spaces, just write ‘twentyone’ with no capitals, spaces, and no numbers. You can also write the actual title of your bookmark as I used above.
TIP: I used to find it confusing that every time I went back to put in a new bookmark for a new title in the bookmarking menu that the previous bookmark title was in it. Don’t worry about this. You just delete it by typing your new bookmark name directly into this window, thus overwriting the last bookmark – but this bookmark is still in the main list below. Or just use the first part of ‘step’ and input the number written such as ‘two’ changing it to ‘three’ etc.
TIP: You can apply the special ‘Heading 3’ to your sub-headings after bookmarking them all. I just find it easier to do as I go along.
HYPERLINKING THE NEWLY CREATED BOOKMARKS DIRECTLY TO THE TABLE of CONTENTS LIST
Now go to your table of contents (TOC) list at the beginning of your document (remember you don’t need to do this if you use an automatic table of contents for Kindle, but you do need to do it for Smashwords with their global reach beyond Amazon). Select/highlight the first on the list (in the case of this present book it is: SECTION ONE: HOW THIS BOOK WAS MADE INSIDE and its full heading title) – recall that I bookmarked it: ’sectionone’). From the main menu ‘Home’ select ‘Insert’ and choose the ‘Hyperlink’ option. You can click on ‘Bookmarks’ to the right of the hyperlink insert options or, when you highlight/select ‘Link to Place in this Document’ – you will see a similar screen with Header and Bookmark options listed. Under Header, you will see the same titles as listed on your navigation panel.
DO NOT LINK TO ANYTHING ON THE HEADINGS LIST IF YOU SEE ONE (This is the automatically generated TOC list). Instead, scroll down past this until you see the bookmarks section and the list should look exactly as you inputted the bookmarks. IT IS THIS THAT YOU LINK TO YOUR TOC LIST. These are the bookmarks you click on one at a time to hyperlink to the corresponding title in your TOC list.
It is very important to check that you are in the ‘Place in this Document’ option or else you will be trying to insert hyperlinks outside the document such as where you put a web address. This external hyperlinking is addressed below. Basically, check that the bookmarks list reflects what you just created by following the guide to create bookmarks above. These should be in alphabetical order, so scroll down to see the other bookmarks not displayed on the small screen. Just scroll down until you find the corresponding bookmark label for the heading you are working on.
For example, in order for me to link my TOC list heading to its corresponding bookmark within the text, I selected the title header ‘SECTION ONE: HOW THIS BOOK WAS MADE INSIDE’ on my TABLE of CONTENTS list and hyperlinked it to ‘sectionone’ on the bookmark with this label. This is equivalent to Chapter One for most books.
You keep going back to the TOC list (in my case, I input: Steps One to Ten within SECTION ONE) and any other header titles that I wanted readers to be able to link to (hyper-linking) each of these with their respective bookmarks until the end. You will notice as you link each that this turns blue (meaning it is a live link).
Once you have one or two links done (TOC headers linked to their bookmarks within the text), you can click on a heading in the TOC and this should take you straight to the first section header within the document with the same title. If everything is working, you should now have a fully clickable navigational document with a live table of contents to navigate to all your main headings. This does get easier with time. But it is quite confusing at first. Just keep doing it until it works.
STEP NINE: EXTERNAL HYPERLINKS
This part is only important to know if you want to link particular websites within your e-book etc. You might want to look at it anyway as it may be useful for linking to your website if you have one and/or author’s profile page etc so your readers know who you are. First, highlight the text in your document that you want to link to. For example, I might want to link my website for DiG-Press. I would select the words DiG-Press and by highlighting it in blue, I would release the left mouse button and click on ‘Insert’. Going to ‘Hyperlinks’ (much as we did above), I would click the option to place in ‘Existing File or Web Page’, if you are not already in this screen option. You should see an address bar at the bottom and ‘Text to Appear’ at the top. In my case, it should have ‘DiG-Press’ displayed in this and I will put the web address at the bottom: ‘URL’. I added the URL (the whole web address that you can copy from the top of the screen when this page is open on-line). Usually, web addresses start with ‘http://’ You don’t put in ‘www’ anymore and I would put in ‘digpress.com/’.
If you are not sure about the web page address, simply go to it online and copy the URL address at the top of the screen and paste it into the address bar and it will hyperlink automatically to the words you have written for people to click on and go straight to the site. Now by placing my URL for dig press into the address bar, I should now have a link here: DiG-Press. Again, if you don’t like the blue hyperlink color, you can always change it. But it will retain an underline in some e-book displays. Hopefully, when you click on it, it should take you directly there.
TIP: You can always delete hyperlink using the same method, but selecting ‘delete hyperlink’ from the drop-down menu.
STEP TEN: Inserting/embedding quality images in your e-book
Most of us do not need to have images within our books, but I used a few in this book just in case you wanted to have some graphics yourself. However, flowable text e-books don’t readily lend themselves to graphics and images (but I’ll show you how it can be done below). If for example, you think of the smallest screen such as an i-phone that someone might expand by resizing the e-page – just like a web page – to look at an image in detail, and imagine that your image is quite small and fills the entire screen of an iPhone, but is tiny when viewed on a large computer screen with lots and lots of white space. You might have gone to the bother of placing text next to the image, but then you might find that the text bears no relation to the image when viewed on some devices.
Worse still, you may have made your image really large and in perfect proportion to what looked good to you in a Word doc and the person reading your book on their i-phone would have a giant portion of your picture and not see what it is. Your image is fixed; it doesn’t expand and shrinks according to the device. It is more like a physical book in this way and is laid out accordingly. It needs to be read on the smallest device and at the same time, the largest HD screen on someone’s home computer.
Insert picture from a file into the area you want your picture. DO NOT paste into your document. On the main menu ‘Home’ select ‘Insert’, the, select ‘Picture’ (it has an icon of a picture).Then from the drop-down screen insert your picture file (JPEG) from where you store it on your computer. I’ll talk more about image resolution in the next section relating to cover image design.
Tip: Kindle devices do not allow text next to images or to align the text via text wrapping. You have to just as the text above and/or below the image as done in this book. This is true of most other e-books, so by following the guides here, you should be good to go – even with embedded images. I found no issues with the images in this book once I resolved the resolution issues.
Create the space to insert your image between the main text to be above and below it. Just make a rough amount of space as the image will come in and space itself accordingly. You can begin to edit this image once it is highlighted/selected you should see the ‘Format’ option on the main ‘Home’ menu screen. (Note: you must have the picture/image highlighted for this format tool to be displayed – click on the image with your mouse cursor and a framed box should appear around it). If you need to make this image smaller (which you probably will as you have to think about flowable nature of text and images on any reading device ranging from a small smartphone type screen to a large computer monitor type screen), only change the size via the corners (angles) by grabbing the image with the cursor and shrinking proportionally.
I noticed that Kindles or Kindle viewer apps display even large images that may fill your entire page on the Word doc as fairly small and if they have any writing or info, your readers will have to scale everything up. Yet, when viewed on an E-Pub, these same images are massive and often you can’t see the entire image it fills the screen so much. I basically make images as large as possible for Kindles and keep them medium to small for all other readers. I would suggest an image no larger than about eight to ten words in length so as the whole section of text and image on the screen can be viewed proportionately to each other for this latter option. Basically, even if your readers can make the text font size larger or smaller, your images will not correspond with this change. But, they could use the scaling tool, but this will scale everything up or down – image and words.
TIP: Bring your image into the file as close to the way you want it to look. In other words, do the cropping and other edits in a simple graphic editing program such as MS picture editor or PowerPoint-type program which comes with the MS Office suite or its equivalent – I’ll show you how to work with images using this in the next section). The reason why you edit the image as close to what it will be prior to inserting into your document is because the changes you make to your image in ‘MS Word’ can default to their original state (pre-editing in ‘Word) when uploaded to some e-reader devices.
It is very important to select the image and choose ‘Format’ from the main menu and by clicking on the downward arrow under ‘Position’ choose ‘In Line with Text’ option. Do not use other text wrapping options. Highlight the image again and go into ‘Home’ menu. Align your image to ‘Centered’ or it will default to left align.
TIP: Make sure that when you center your image that the margin indent is not set to indent on your ruler. If like me you like to use paragraph indents, the center alignment for the image will center according to this indent and be slightly off when viewed on e-book. Just slide the ruler so there are no indents and highlight your image and then center it.
This method described above, works most of the time for most images, however, when I started using images that had lines and graphs for another e-book I was work on, I discovered to my horror, that these were virtually unreadable graphs when reviewed on an e-reading device. They were a little better on the Kindle Previewer (an app that you can download from Amazon for free to preview your e-book on a great range of devices other than Kindles, as I don’t personally own one). You can preview your book prior to publishing/or not publish your book with Amazon once you sign up with them and join their KDP program (this is explained in the last section 3 and if you have an Amazon account already from buying with them – then this signup is really straightforward).
I had to resolve this in yet another novel way. Basically, the issue came down to the JPEG format. Although this is the format accepted for your book cover (as you will see in the next section), other formats are acceptable for e-book interior images – which is great as JPEG (apparently as I found out after some research) is notorious for reducing the quality of the image (particularly lines and text within the image) via its way of making the graphic portable (compressing) and quite universal across a lot of devices.
The solution is to save your image in another portable format for graphics/images known as PNG. If you have an option to save any image in this format, whatever program you use, save it as PNG: not JPEG. It will save you less grief in the end.
Furthermore, as the graphic program PowerPoint outlined in the next section is compatible with Word Documents, as they are part of the same Office Suite, it turns out that these two programs work incredibly well together and in a sense PowerPoint are the graphic and text rich equivalent of Word documents. They work very similarly. When we explore this option below, you will see that when you are saving slides on this program, that there is an option to ‘Save as Other’ and this is where you choose to save, not as JPEG, but as PNG. It is this saved slide, which is now a stand-alone image that you save in ‘My Pictures’ as you would any image, that you bring into your word document using the method described above. This is how I produced the images within this present e-book.
TIP: If all else fails and your graphic is still not coming out well on an e-reading device, you can break the rules and copy the individual slide directly from PowerPoint into the place you want it to be in your word document (copied and reformatted mss). It works and then, you centre it and choose alignment with text etc as outlined above.
That’s all Folks for the time being! Please share with anyone who you think might benefit from this info. The full version of the e-book teaching you all about easy cover design using PowerPoint (as part of the MS Office Suite) and all about uploading and distributing, pricing your books etc is all there. Basically, everything you will probably need to know about e-book publishing.
Just search for it by name/author: ‘How This Book Was Made & How You Can Make Your Own’. Or direct links are given below as some outlets such as Apple i-store don’t have a title searchable tool.
(*note you have to have an account to link directly to this)
and also available just about everywhere else
The paperback version that shows you everything you need to know about publishing your book/s (physical & e-books/cover design using non-specialist tools/tax forms made easy /royalties/POD) – Just about everything you’ll probably ever need to know to become a fully independent (INDIE) publisher!
Maybe you would like to order it at your favourite bookstore online (It’s also available at all other major outlets). Just search for title: ‘How This Book Was Made & E-Book 2 and How You Can Make Your Own’.